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Can Utilitarianism Ground Human Rights?

Appendix 2

Book cover: An Introduction to Western Philosophy by Anthony Flew

Listed below is the mapping of each of the Articles in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights [United Nations (General Assembly) 1966] to the following:

  1. specific needs identified in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, and
  2. specific preconditions for happiness identified in the World Happiness Report 2023 (WHR)

For a discussion of the mapping, see §4.2 Happiness Surveys.

Article 1 – right of self-determination

Maslow:
safety/social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
physical and mental health/human relationships/income and employment/personal freedom

Article 2 – right to non-discrimination and legal remedy

Maslow:
physiological/safety/social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
physical and mental health/human relationships/income and physical and mental health/
human relationships/lack of corruption/effective government

Article 3 – right of men and women to equal enjoyment of rights

Maslow:
physiological/safety/social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
physical and mental health/human relationships/effective government

Article 4 – rights derogated in time of public emergency

Maslow:
physiological/safety
WHR:
physical and mental health

Article 5 – no right to destroy rights and freedoms

Maslow:
physiological/safety/social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
physical and mental health/human relationships/personal freedom/lack of corruption/
effective government

Article 6 – right to life; freedom from genocide

Maslow:
physiological/safety
WHR:
physical and mental health/effective government

Article 7 – freedom from torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment

Maslow:
physiological/safety/self-esteem
WHR:
physical and mental health/effective government

Article 8 – freedom from slavery or forced labour

Maslow:
physiological/safety/social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
physical and mental health/personal freedom/income and employment

Article 9 – right to liberty, security of person, arrest in accordance with law

Maslow:
safety
WHR:
personal freedom/lack of corruption/effective government

Article 10 – right of accused to humane treatment

Maslow:
safety/self-esteem
WHR:
physical and mental health/lack of corruption/effective government

Article 11 – freedom from imprisonment on ground of inability to fulfil contract

Maslow:
self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
physical and mental health/personal freedom

Article 12 – freedom of movement and choice of residence

Maslow:
social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
human relationships/personal freedom

Article 13 – freedom of aliens from unlawful expulsion and right to review

Maslow:
social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
human relationships/personal freedom/lack of corruption/effective government

Article 14 – right to equal treatment before law, fair trial, presumption of innocence

Maslow:
self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
physical and mental health/lack of corruption/effective government

Article 15 – freedom from backdating criminal law and severity of penalty

Maslow:
self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
physical and mental health/lack of corruption/effective government

Article 16 – right to recognition as person before the law

Maslow:
self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
physical and mental health/lack of corruption/effective government

Article 17 – freedom from arbitrary interference with privacy, family and from libel

Maslow:
social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
physical and mental health/human relationships/effective government

Article 18 – right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion

Maslow:
social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
human relationships/character virtues/personal freedom

Article 19 – right to hold opinions, freedom of expression

Maslow:
self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
physical and mental health/personal freedom

Article 20 – freedom from war propaganda, incitement to discrimination, hostility

Maslow:
physiological/safety/social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
physical and mental health/human relationships/personal freedom

Article 21 – right of peaceful assembly

Maslow:
social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
human relationships/personal freedom

Article 22 – right to freedom of association

Maslow:
social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
human relationships/income and employment/personal freedom

Article 23 – right to marry, found a family free of coercion

Maslow:
social/self-esteem
WHR:
human relationships/personal freedom

Article 24 – right of children to non-discriminatory protection, name and nationality

Maslow:
social/self-esteem
WHR:
physical and mental health/human relationships

Article 25 – right to political participation without discrimination

Maslow:
social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
human relationships/personal freedom/lack of corruption/effective government

Article 26 – right to equal protection of the law

Maslow:
self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
lack of corruption/effective government

Article 27 – right of minorities to their culture, religion and language

Maslow:
social/self-esteem/self-actualization
WHR:
human relationships/character virtues/personal freedom

Copyright © 2023

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